Student waiter businessman postman

UNIT 1

About myself

Let me introduce myself. My full name is Alexander Ivanov. I am seventeen. I am a first-year student of Tver Technical University. My family is not large. We are four. My father is an engineer. My mother is an economist. My sister is a pupil. She is ten years old. I went to school in 1997 and finished it in 2007. I studied many subjects at school but my favourite ones were mathematics and physics. As I studied well I decided to continue my education. My father graduated from Technical University (then it was called Polytechnic Institute) so he advised me to enter it. I successfully passed State Examinations at school and was taken in the university. Now I am in the first course. I study at the Automated Systems faculty; my future speciality is system engineer.

The academic year begins in September. It lasts ten months and ends in June. There are two terms in the course of the academic year. Examinations take place at the end of each term. During the terms students spend much time working: they have to attend lectures and seminars, carry out laboratory tests, work hard in libraries and at home.

The university has a five year course of study. The curriculum of the specialized higher institutions may be divided into three parts: the Humanities, General and Specialized subjects. The subjects of the first two groups give a solid basis of general education to future specialists; specialized subjects help students develop necessary practical skills. Specialization usually begins in the third year. The first year students study different subjects: higher mathematics, physics, chemistry, English, history, computer sciences and a number of other subjects. We are taught by highly qualified lecturers and professors. Usually we have one lecture and two practical classes. Our classes begin at half past eight and end at two o’clock.

In five years I shall graduate from the university. I like to study so I hope to become a highly qualified specialist in a chosen field.

I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1) How old are you?

2) What university do you study at?

3) What faculty do you study at?

4) What is your future speciality?

5) How many members does your family consist of?

6) Is your sister younger or older than you?

7) Did you study well at school?

8) How long did you study at school?

9) What foreign language did you study at school?

10) Why did you enter this institute?

11) How is the academic year organized?

12) How many years does the university course usually last?

13) Why is it so important to be a highly qualified specialist in a chosen field?

II. Выразите согласие или несогласие.

1) Do you study at school?

2) Are you a student of the third year?

3) Do you study many subjects?

4) Did you pass your State Examinations well?

5) Do you live far from the University?

6) Is English your favourite subject?

7) Were your books borrowed from the library?

8) Do you live in the hall of residence?

III. Поставьте вместо точек предлоги of, in, to, at, from.

1) I study ... Technical University.

2) I went ... school ... 1997.

3) I studied many subjects ... school.

4) I entered ... the TSTU.

5) We are ... the first course.

6) I study ... the Humanitarian faculty.

7) I shall graduate ... the University ... five years.

IV. Перестройте русские предложения в соответствии со строгим порядком слов в английском предложении.

1. Для меня очень трудны эти упражнения. 2. Завтра на научной студенческой конференции доклад будет делать мой друг. 3. Экзамены студенты сдают в конце каждого семестра. 4. Над английским он должен много работать. 5. Эту статью она вчера начала переводить на английский язык.

V.Составьте предложения из следующих слов в соответствии с правилом порядка слов в английском предложении. Полученные предложения переведите.

1) has, buildings, our, several, institute.

2) subjects, students, many, the first-year, study.

3) the third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer.

4) carry out, the students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-equipped.

5) problems, many, scientists, important, solve, our.

6) texts, difficult, Petrov, technical, translated.

7) his, will, the teacher, translation, correct.

8) next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will.

9) students, more, institutes, this, entered, one, a million, than, year.


V. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Преобразуйте их в вопросительные и отрицательные.



1.1. I study English and French. 2. They attend English classes regularly. 3. Bob and Mike often miss lectures. 4. These students make reports at scientific conferences every year. 5. We study at the Engineering Ecology Faculty.

2.1. She shows brilliant progress in her studies. 2. Professor Ivanov works at our University. 3. He makes a lot of experiments. 4. Roger likes philosophy very much. 5. Helen makes reports at students’ scientific conferences every year.

3.1. They entered the University three years ago. 2. He defended his thesis for a scientific degree last month. 3. She failed her English exam yesterday. 4. They began to study English at the University. 5. Our descriptive geometry teacher gave a consultation to our group yesterday.

4.1. He will take a post-graduate course after graduating from the University. 2. The academic year will finish at the end of June. 3. We shall discuss this question at our seminar tomorrow. 4. Extra-mural students will study on Sunday. 5. I shall finish this work next week.

5.1. We are doing grammar exercises now. 2. He is working at this problem at present. 3. Sam was writing down the data during the experiment. 4. They were working at 6 o’clock yesterday. 5. She will be working at her graduation project the whole evening tomorrow. 6. They will be analysing the results of the experiment after they finish their work.

6.1. He has done all his homework. 2. We have finished discussing the problem. 3. The conference had begun by the time we came. 4. They had arranged everything for the experiment by 2 o’clock yesterday. 5. Ann will have finished her work by 5 o’clock tomorrow.

VI. Определите глагольную форму. Добавьте возможное обстоятельство времени из предложенных ниже.

1. ... he comes to the University in time. 2. I have not seen him at the University ... 3. Where is Helen? – She is working in the library ... . 4. The lecture had been over ... . 5. They had no lessons ... . 6. He will be taking his mathematics exam again ... . 7. ... he works much at his thesis. ... he worked 10 hours a day. Now he has an interval in his work. ... he will continue his work.

__________________________________________________________________

usually: now; as a rule; for the last few days; by 3 o’clock yesterday; last week; yesterday; when I met you; in some days, at 3 o’clock tomorrow.

VII. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в нужном времени.

1. He (attend) all lectures regularly. 2. We already (decide) to join the Students’ Scientific Society of our University. 3. The students of our group (carry out) a laboratory test now. 4. I left the library after I (finish) reading the book. 5. They (write) a test in English next week. 6. The lessons at our University (begin) at 8 a.m. 7. By the end of the year they (graduate) from the University. 8. All my friends (pass) their examinations well last week. 9. When we came to the dormitory to visit our friends, Irene (translate) a text and Ann (write) a letter to her parents.

VIII. Задайте все возможные вопросы к следующим предложениям.

1. Paul attends lectures at the Institute every day. 2. They have always passed

examinations successfully. 3. Peter is translating a new text. 4. They took the books from the library of our University. 5. Our lectures begin at 8 o’clock in the morning. 6. I shall have an English class tomorrow. 7. She has entered the Institute this year. 8. We are listening to the teacher.

IX. Чем жизнь студента отличается от жизни других людей? Подберите заголовки следующим текстам в соответствии с родом занятий:

UNIT 2

Education

As long as we live we continue to study and the education we receive when we are young helps us to continue studying.

September the 1st is an important day in Russia. It is the first day of a school year. Russia has a unified system of public education. Characteristic features of our public educa­tion are:

1. The equal right to education for all citizens as guaranteed by the Russian Constitution.

2. Co-education. But in some places pupils attend separate men's and women's schools.

3. Generally, the tuition is free throughout the system. But now in some educational institutions people pay for education.

4. Almost all the schools belong to the state, and we also have private and church schools.

The unified system of public education in Russia consists of the following chief types:

1. Secondary education

2. Specialized secondary education

3. Technical vocational education

4. Higher education

There are some types of higher educational schools in our country: Institutes, Universities and Academies. Entrance to them is by competition which is open to anyone between the age of 17 to 35 who has finished secondary school and passes State Examinations successfully. A complete course at higher schools usually lasts 5 years; in some it may be a little longer or shorter.

Universities train highly qualified specialists in sciences and humanities. The specialized institutes train specialists for one of the fields of culture or national economy. The characteristic features of Russian higher education are the following. First, it trains specialists in a variety of subjects and, second, graduates from our higher schools are broad specialists.

Education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for its future development and progress.

I. Проверьте по словарю и прочитайте следующие слова.

education, educational, unify, unified, character, characteristic, school, technical, church, chief, machinery, right, high, higher, institute, institution, institutional, tuition, variety, special, specialize,specialized, specialist, course, sciences, qualify, qualified, qualification.

II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.

1) What is the first day of a school year in Russia?

2) What are characteristic features of our public education?

3) Do people pay for their education?

4) Are there private schools in Russia?

5) What chief types does the system of education in Russia consist of?

6) How many groups are higher schools divided into? What are they?

7) Who can enter a higher school?

8) How many years does the course of education last?

9) When do applicants take exams?

10) What specialists do the higher schools train?

11) What are the characteristic features of Russian higher education?

III. Прочитайте следующие предложения, вставив вместо точек нужные предлоги: in, for, of, to, throughout, at, into, by

1) The Russian Constitution guarantees the equal right ... education ... all citizens.

2) The tuition is free ... the system.

3) Almost all the schools belong ... the state.

4) The system ... public education ... Russia consists ... several chief types.

5) Russian higher schools are divided ... two basic groups.

6) Entrance ... the University is ... competitive examinations.

7) The complete course ... the university usually lasts five years.

8) Some applicants fail ... this or that subject.

IV. Вопросы для обсуждения

1) Is it important to get higher education nowadays?

2) Do you think it is easy to study at university?

3) Do you have any of the following study problems? Discuss them with the group.

In class - It is difficult to concentrate - You cannot follow the lesson - You do not like the subject - Other students are much better than you - Other problems (What?) Outside class - You have nowhere quiet to study - You lack self-discipline - It’s difficult to begin studying - You do not have enough time - Other problems (What?)

V. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы.

UNIT 3

Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 240,000 square kilometers. The United Kingdom is made up of four constituent units: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. In everyday speech «Great Britain» is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the United Kingdom is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea, the Irish Sea and the English Channel.

The surface of the British Isles varies much. There are mountains on the north and west. The center and south-east is a vast plain. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m). There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the largest river while the Thames is the deepest and most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate. It is mild the whole year round.

The United Kingdom is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of technology, machinery, textile and electronics. One of the chief industries is engineering.

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. In practice, the country is ruled by the elected Government, with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament, the main legislative body, consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are two main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour and Conservative. The Labour party is ruling nowadays. The Prime Minister is Gordon Brown.

The United Kingdom is one of the most powerful countries in the world.

I. Проверьте по словарю и прочитайте следующие географические названия.

The United Kingdom, Great Britain, Northern Ireland, the British Isles, Wales, London, Edinburgh, Cardiff, Belfast, Europe, the European continent, the North sea, the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf Stream, Ben Nevis, the Severn, the Thames.

II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по тексту.

1) Where is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland situated?

2) What parts is the United Kingdom made up of?

3) What is the capital of Great Britain?

4) What is the highest mountain of Great Britain?

5) What influences the climate of the British Isles?

6) What is the chief industry of Great Britain?

7) What is the political structure of the United Kingdom?

8) What party is ruling nowadays?

9) Who is the Prime Minister?

III. Прочитайте следующие предложения, вставив вместо точек глаголы, дан­ные под чертой, в соответствующей форме. При необходимости добавьте предлоги.

1) The United Kingdom .... the British Isles.

2) The United Kingdom .... four countries.

3) The British Isles .... the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.

4) The climate on the British Isles .... the warm waters of Gulf Stream.

5) The country .... the British Parliament.

6) Machinery, textile, electronics .... Great Britain.

to influence, to make up, to rule, to produce, to situate on, to separate from

IV.Соедините предложения, используя Причастие I или II. Переведите их на русский язык.

Модель: The government is usually formed by the political party. It is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. – The government is usually formed by the political party, supported by the majority in the House of Commons.

1. Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. It consists of two large islands and about five thousand small islands. 2. The Prime Minister is the majority party leader. He is appointed by the Queen. 3. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. 4. The United Kingdom is situated on the British Isles. It is made up of four countries. 5. The British Isles consist of two large islands and about five thousand small islands. They have their total area over 244,000 square kilometres. 6. The North of Scotland is mountainous. It is called the Highlands. 7. The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the English Channel. They are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Irish Sea and the North Sea. 8. We made a tour round the town. We visited Westminster Abbey.

V. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

Climate

Due to the moderating influence of the sea and the Gulf Stream, Great Britain has an insular climate. It is rather humid, cool, temperate and mild, without striking differences between seasons. This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring. The southwest winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain.

The British climate has 3 main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. It is never too hot or too cold. The weather is so changeable that the English often say that they have no climate but only weather.

Rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 15-23 degrees above zero. Winter temperatures below 10 degrees are rare. Winters are extremely mild. There may be snow but it melts quickly. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes. Droughts are rare.

UNIT 4

LONDON

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. Today the metropolis of Greater London covers some 1,580 sq. km and the suburbs of London continue even beyond this area.

Traditionally the historical centre of London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other and seem to belong to different epochs.

The heart of London is the City, its financial and business center with the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, numerous banks, offices and firms. About 6 000 people live here, but about half a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous sights in the City including: the Monument commemorating the Great Fire of London, St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches, designed by Christopher Wren in the 17th century; the Mansion House, an official residence of the Lord Mayor and, of course, the Tower of London. Its history is closely connected with the Tower of London which was built by William the Conqueror in 1066 to protect and control the city. In the past it was a fortress, a palace and a state prison. Now it is a popular museum.

Westminster is the part of London that has long been connected with royalty and government. Buckingham Palace is the British monarch’s main residence in London. It has been the royal residence since 1762.

The Houses of Parliament is the seat of the British Parliament. This architectural complex contains the universal symbol of London, Big Ben.

Close to the Houses of Parliament stands Westminster Abbey. In Westminster Abbey most British monarchs have been crowned and here you may see the ancient Coronation Chair. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling and others.

The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The largest department stores, cinemas and hotels are situated here. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums and the best galleries. It is in the West End where the University of London is centred with Bloomsbury as London’s student quarter.

Trafalgar Square is the geographical center of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the national Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum – the biggest museum in London which contains a priceless collection of ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures and is famous for its library.

London can be proud of its many green parks and open spaces, where the English countryside comes to the centre of the city. Some of the famous parks are in the West End such as Kensington Gardens, Regent’s Park and the Zoo.

The East End grew with the spread of industries to the east of the city and the expansion of the Port of London. The East End of London is very important to the country’s commerce. It is also known as the centre of the clothing industry, the East End markets are famous throughout the world.

I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по текст.

1) What new facts about London have you learned?

2) What parts is London divided into?

3) Where is Big Ben situated?

4) Where is the City?

5) What is the symbol of wealth and luxury?

6) What is the governmental part of London?

7) What is Bloomsbury?

8) What memory was the Trafalgar Square named in?

9) What is the British Museum famous for?

10) What is there in the East End?

II. Повторите степени сравнения прилагательных и поставьте следующие слова в срав­нительную и превосходную степени.

large, interesting, good, big, ancient, rich, beautiful, poor, much, great.

III. Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию текста.

1) The capital of Great Britain is

a) London; b) New York; c) Edinburgh.

2) Traditionally London is divided into

a) two parts; b) six parts; c) four parts.

3) The heart of London is

a) Westminster; b) the City; c) St. Paul's Cathedral.

4) The Houses of Parliament is situated in

a) the West End; b) Scotland; c) Westminster.

5) The official residence of the Queen is

a) the Buckingham Palace; b) Westminster Abbey; c) the Westminster Palace.

6) The Trafalgar Square was named in memory of the victory

a) over Germany in World War II; b) of Admiral Trafalgar; c) of Admiral Nelson.

7) The West End is

a) the place where working people live; b) the heart of London; c) the symbol of wealth and luxury.

8) The London’s student corner is

a) the Mansion House; b) Bloomsbury; c) Westminster Abbey.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.

1) Лондон – столица Великобритании, её экономический, политический и торговый центр.

2) Лондон – один из старейших и интереснейших городов мира.

3) Традиционно он делится на четыре части.

4) В Сити расположены многочисленные банки, офисы и фирмы, включая Банк Англии и Фондовую биржу.

5) Лондонский Тауэр – одно из древнейших зданий Великобритании. Оно было основано Юлием Цезарем.

6) Трафальгарская площадь – географический центр Лондона.

7) Британский музей – крупнейший музей Лондона.

8) В нём находится бесценная коллекция древних рукописей.

9) В Ист-Энд – много фабрик, доков и мастерских.

10) Рынки района Ист-Энд известны по всему миру.

V. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на неличные формы глагола:

1) London is considered to be the largest city in Europe, its population being over 8 million.

2) Being the heart of London the City has numerous banks, offices and firms.

3) Having been founded by Julius Caesar the Tower of London was used as a fortress.

4) Big Ben known as the big hour bell is situated on the Houses of Parliament.

5) The British Museum is the biggest museum containing the priceless collection of ancient manuscripts.

6) The East End being the place of docks and factories is a working class family’s district.

7) St. Paul's Cathedral being the famous ancient building is the greatest of English churches.

8) While staying in London he visited the British Museum.

VI. Задайте все возможные вопросы к следующему предложению.

The Trafalgar Square was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's Victory in 1805.

VII. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря.

Stratford-on-Avon

Stratford is known to be situated right in the centre of England. W. Shakespeare’s being born here made the small town very famous. His birthplace is a small house with small rooms in the centre of Stratford. To see it, lots of people visit the town and write their names on the walls. On becoming famous Shakespeare bought the largest house in Stratford and there he died in 1616. But nothing is left of the house today.

There is a garden behind the house. All the flowers, trees and plants mentioned in Shake­speare's plays are growing here.

UNIT 5

The Town of Tver

The town of Tver stands on the great Russian river Volga. Tver is one of the oldest Russian towns. It is 12 years older than Moscow. Tver was founded in 1135. It played a great role in the early history of our country. In 1755 Tver became the principle town of the Tver province.

In the XVIIIth century Catherine the Great sent a group of architects headed by P.R. Nikitin to restore the town after two great fires. The best architects of Russia А.V. Kvasov and М.F. Kasakov worked up the town development plan. The town planning was considered to be a height of three-rayed architectural composition. It has been preserved to our days. Many beautiful buildings designed by them are examples of Russian architecture. These buildings are: the Travel Palace, a number of buildings in Octagonal Square and on the bank of the Volga River.

Many famous Russian poets and writers came to Tver many times. . Some of them lived or stayed here for a long time: A.S. Pushkin, I.A. Krylov, M.Y. Saltykov-Shchedrin, L.N. Tolstoy, I.I. Lazhechnikov. Monuments to all these people were erected in our town. On the left bank of the Volga River we can also see the monument to the Tver merchant Afanasy Nikitin who was the first to visit India.

In the second part of the 19th century Tver became a large industrial town. Here appeared large textile mills, a steam mill, a timber mill and a railway carriage building plant. Now Tver is a big industrial centre. Its population is about 500 000. There are many large enterprises of engineering, metal working, textile, chemical, polygraphical and other industries: a printing combine which publishes text-books and magazines, a larger combine of children books, an excavator works, an artificial fibre combine and an artificial leather combine.

Many new modern houses were built in the former «outskirts».

Now it is also a big cultural centre of our country. Its Drama Theatre, Philarmonic Society, Children's Theatre were built after the war. Tver has many cinemas, clubs, palaces of culture, a television centre and many libraries. The Gorky Regional Library founded one hundred years ago is housed in a new building now. It has over 600,000 books.

There are many educational establishments in our town. Among them are State University, Technical University, State Medical Academy and Agricultural Academy.

The country around Tver is very picturesque. The town of Tver grows and becomes more beautiful from year to year. Its old history, advantageous geographical location between the two Russian capitals, rich nature, developed industry, intellectual, scientific and cultural potential are sure to attract tourists to the Tver Region.

I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1) Where does the town of Tver stand?

2) When was Tver founded?

3) Is Tver older than Moscow?

4) When did Tver become the principle town of the Tver Province?

5) By whom was the centre of the city designed?

6) What buildings were built by these architects?

7) What famous people lived and worked in Tver?

8) In what way were they immortalized?

9) Is Tver a large industrial centre now?

10) What large Tver enterprises do you know?

11) What is the largest library in Tver?

12) How many higher schools are there in Tver?

13) Why is our town so attractive for tourists?

II. Образуйте от следующих глаголов существительные с суффиксом -er, переведите:

to design, to found, to play, to build, to reconstruct, to visit, to research, to print.

III. Прочитайте следующие слова, обращая внимание на ударение:

Tver Province, architect, architecture, Octagonal Square, Embankment, monument, large textile mills, railway carriage building plant, enterprise, printing and publishing combine, artificial fibre and leather combine, Drama Theatre, Philharmonic Society, many stadiums, picturesque, to surround, tourist.

IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1) Тверь - один из старейших русских городов.

2) Он расположен на Волге.

3) Город Тверь на 12 лет старше Москвы.

4) В Твери много современных предприятий.

5) В городе живет около 500 тысяч человек.

6) Тверь растет и становится краше с каждым годом.

7) Полиграфический комбинат выпускает сотни учебников и журналов.

8) Памятник Афанасию Никитину находится на берегу Волги.

9) Библиотека имени Горького – одна из старейших в городе.

V. Прочитайте следующие предложения, вставив вместо точек глаголы, дан­ные под чертой, в соответствующей форме.

1) Tver... in the 12th century.

2) The centre of the town ... by Kasakov and Nikitin.

3) This centre ... to our days.

4) A monument to Krylov ... in our town.

5) Many new buildings ... in the former «outskirts».

6) The Gorky Library ... in a big building.

7) The town ... by forests.

to design, to surround, to found, to preserve, to house, to build, to erect.

UNIT 6

Our university

Tver Technical University is one of the biggest higher schools in our country. Tver Technical University was established in 1922 as Moscow Peat Institute. In 1958 it was transferred to Kalinin. In 1965 Peat Institute was reorganized into polytechnic. In 1994 it was renamed into Tver State Technical University.

Every year highly-qualified specialists for national economy graduate from the University. They are chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, economists, ecologists, managers, systems engineers and many others.

Education at the University is organized in two forms: full-time and extra-mural. There are also some part-time courses. The University has six departments for full-time students. They are ma­chine-building, civil-engineering, automated systems, nature management and engineering ecology, of Humanities and additional professional education. The course is divided into several stages. The first and second year students study general engineering subjects (mathematics, physics, descriptive geometry) and some humanities (history, philosophy, foreign languages). That gives a solid basis of general education to future specialists. Special subjects are taught in senior courses. Much attention is paid to practical instruction. During the final term undergraduates carry out their graduation projects. They defend them to an examination board and become graduates. At the end of the university course they receive graduation diplomas and go to work to different branches of engineering.

About 5000 students study at Tver Technical University. The University consists of six studying buildings and several dormitories. The class-rooms and lecture-halls, laboratories and workshops are equipped with up-to-date instruments, computers, machine-tools, audio-visuals and other training appliances. There is a rich library, four reading-rooms, dining halls and a sports complex at the disposal of students. So the University has all the facilities necessary for successful studies and rest.

Besides regular studies many students carry out scientific research work under the guidance of their experienced teachers and professors. At the university there is a post-graduate course and a preparatory department for foreign students.

I study at the ................... department. My future speciality is ................... . I hope I shall become a highly-qualified specialist and find a proper job after graduation.

I. Прочтите следующие слова, проверив их произношение по словарю.

high, higher, highly-qualified, special, specialist, specialized, education, educational, extra-mural, course, environment, environmental, humanitarian, university, institute, student, study, subject, variety, foreign, experience, experienced, graduate, guidance, science, scientist, scientific.

II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1) When was Tver Technical University established?

2) How is education organized at the University?

3) How many faculties are there at the University?

4) What are they?

5) What specialists graduate from the University?

6) What subjects do the students study?

7) What buildings does the University consist of?

8) When did you enter Tver Technical University?

9) What faculty do you study at?

10) What is your future speciality?

III. Поставьте вместо точек предлоги at, into, for, from, of, out, to, under.

1) I study ... Tver Technical University.

2) In 1958 the Moscow Peat Institute was transferred ... Kalinin.

3) In 1965 the Peat Institute was reorganized ... polytechnic.

4) Every year a lot of specialists graduate ... the University.

5) There are five faculties ... full-time students.

6) The curriculum ... study consists ... a variety... subjects.

7) The University consists ... six studying buildings.

8) Many students carry ... scientific research work ... the guidance ... teacher and professors.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык и расскажите о себе.

1) Меня зовут ... .

2) Я учусь в Тверском техническом университете.

3) Я – студент второго курса ... факультета.

4) Моя будущая специальность ... .

5) Наш университет был основан в 1922 году как Московский торфяной институт.

6) В 1958 году он был переведён в Калинин, а в 1994 году реорганизован в Тверской государственный технический университет.

7) Образование в университете организованно в очной и заочной формах.

8) Студенты дневного отделения могут учиться на пяти факультетах.

9) Я изучаю множество обязательных и факультативных предметов.

10) В университете есть большая научная библиотека, компьютерные классы, специальные лаборатории.

11) После окончания университета можно поступить в аспирантуру.

12) Я буду проводить свою исследовательскую работу под руководством профес­сора.

V. Выполните письменный перевод текста.

UNIT 7

L.D. Landau

Lev Davidovich Landau is a famous Soviet physicist. He worked in such fields as low-temperature, atomic, nuclear and plasma physics. Several physical terms bear his name. He was awarded the 1962 Noble Prize for the development of liquid helium theory.

He was born in 1908. At the age of 13 he finished the Gymnasium and, because he was too young to go to the university, attended Baku Economical Technical School. In 1922 he entered Baku University to study physics and chemistry and soon transferred to Leningrad. Having graduated from Leningrad State University in 1927 he continued his research at Leningrad Physical and Technical Institute.

In 1929 he went abroad. For about a year he worked in N. Bohr’s Institute in Copenhagen. He always considered himself a pupil of Bohr, his attitude to physics being greatly influenced by Bohr’s example.

In 1932 Landau went to Kharkov to become the head of the Theoretical Division of Ukrainian Physical and Technical Institute. There he began to build a Soviet school of theoretical physics. He started to write with his friend and former student E.M. Lifshitz the well-known Course of Theoretical Physics. At the age of 27 he became a professor of physics. In 1937 Landau moved to Moscow to head the Theory Division of the Vavilov Institute.

In Moscow he made contributions to almost all parts of physics and showed close interest in experimental physics. That led to his explanation of superfluidity in helium II, the work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize.

On January 7, 1962 Landau was involved in a car accident. He was unconscious for six weeks and was several times declared clinically dead but he somehow revived. He died six years later in 1968.

Besides the Noble Prize, L.D. Landau received many other Russian and foreign honours.

I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1) When was Landau born?

2) At what age did Landau finish the Gymnasium?

3) At what Institute did he study?

4) Did he study abroad?

5) When did he become a professor?

6) When and where did he begin to build a Soviet school of theoretical physics?

7) For what work was he awarded the Noble Prize?

8) Did Landau make significant contribution to almost all parts of physics?

9) What book did Landau write with his friend and former student E.M. Lifshitz?

II. Переведите на русский язык.

1) Liquid helium being super fluid, it had less resistance against moving through a tube than any other known liquid.

2) To save Landau's life many distinguished specialists from several countries helped him.

3) While willing to help anybody he hated pomposity.

4) Having visited Cambridge and Zurich Landau returned home.

5) The development of present-day theoretical physics is known to owe more to Bohr’s Institute than to any other place in the world.

6) We know almost all of the leading theoretical physicists of the 1920-30s to spend some time at this institute.

7) His great interest being the teaching of physics, he planned to write “Course of Gen­eral Physics” and even a series “Physics for Everybody”.

8) Landau required all his students to master all necessary mathematical techniques before coming to him.

9) After that he expected them to master the so-called theoretical minimum.

III. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1) Ландау родился в 1908 году.

2) В 1922 году он поступил в Бакинский университет.

3) В 1927 он закончил Ленинградский государственный университет.

4) Ландау всегда считал себя учеником Бора.

5) В 1932 году, в Харькове, Ландау начал создавать советскую школу теоретической физики.

6) В возрасте 27 лет он стал профессором.

7) За разработку теории жидкого гелия он получил Нобелевскую премию.

IV. Прочитайте и переведите текст без словаря:

Mstislave Keldysh

М. Keldysh, a prominent Soviet scientist, was born on February 10, 1911, in Riga, into a family of a professor of Polytechnic Institute. The talent of Keldysh found expression in his fundamental works of researching into the problems of mathematics, mechanics and physics. His name is linked with a number of scientific problems of the outer space exploration.

Academician Keldysh made a valuable contribution to the development of computation mathematics, computing machines and the solution of some problems of automated control.

He received Doctor of Science Degree in 1938. Five years later he was elected Cor­responding Member of the Academy of Sciences. He became President of the Academy in 1961.

M. Keldysh was awarded several orders and other decorations.

V. Прочитайте текст. Назовите области исследования и имена ученых, которые внесли свой вклад в развитие науки в России. Переведите текст.

RUSSIAN SCIENTISTS

Russia gave the world many outstanding scientists. Russian scientists made a great contribution to the world science.

V.V. Petrov (176l-1834), the follower of Lomonosov in studying electricity, is called a pioneer of the world electrical engineering. He was experimenting with electricity and made many discoveries of great importance. He published a great number of articles on electricity. The electric arc discovered by Petrov became the first source of electric lighting. Petrov discovered the possibility of getting metals out of ores by means of electricity.

Academician E.Kh. Lenz (1804-1875) is one of the most prominent Russian physicists. He discovered the law of heat generation by an electric current and the law defining the direction of an induced electric current.

P.M. Yablochkov (1847-1894) is a prominent inventor and designer. He did much for using alternating current. He is famous for inventing the “Yablochkov candle” (arc lamp) known abroad under the name of the “Russian Light”.

A.S. Popov (1859-1906) is known for his invention of a radio. After demonstrating his device Popov was offered a lot of money for the commercial use of the radio abroad. But he was a true Russian patriot, he refused to leave Russia. He said that all his knowledge and his achievements belonged to his native land.

Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (1862-1919) is a Russian engineer. He is the inventor of a three-phase generator and a three-phase transformer. He proposed a number of original designs of measuring instruments.

We know many other names of great Russian scientists and we are proud of them.

Lobachevsky’s non-Euclidean geometry brought about a revolution in science. Mendeleev discovered the periodic law of elements. The world’s first photoelectric cell was built by Stoletov. Lebedev succeeded in measuring the pressure of light experimentally. Zhukovsky and Chaplygin worked out the theory of flight and the principles of aerodynamics. Vernadsky laid the foundations of geochemistry – the science of chemical elements.

The first atomic power station and Yuri Gagarin’s flight into space, lasers, semiconductors and many other achievements of modern science and technology have been created and discovered by such prominent Russian scientists as Tsiolkovsky and Kurchatov, Keldysh and Korolyov, Basov and Prokhorov and many others.


VI. Подберите пары синонимов к следующим словам и словосочетаниям, переведите их.

Law, to propose, prominent, many, instrument, to be known for, principle, to offer, outstanding, a lot of, device, to be famous for.

VII. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты для следующих словосочетаний:

под названием, вносить большой вклад, осуществлять революцию, гордиться учеными, первый в мире, использовать изобретение за границей.

VIII. Определите, с какими предлогами употребляются следующие глаголы и глагольные словосочетания. Найдите в тексте предложения с этими глаголами и переведите их на русский язык.

1. to be famous 2. to succeed 3. to belong 4. to be proud 5. to bring 6. to work a. out b. to с for d. in e. of f. about

IX. Переведите словосочетания с герундием, используя данные предлоги:

in – при изучении электричества, при измерении давления, при определении направления,

of – возможность получения металлов, способы (методы) измерения, план проведения эксперимента.

for – для применения тока, для определения проблемы, для развития науки, after – после демонстрации прибора, после разработки теории, после создания генератора.

X. Найдите в тексте слова с окончанием -ing и распределите их в таблицу. Предложения, содержащие Ving, переведите.

Participle I Gerund

XI. Восстановите вопросы по ответам.

1) Yes, they did. Russian scientists made a great contribution to world science.

2) «Yablochkov candle» is called abroad the «Russian Light».

3) . . . because Popov was a true Russian patriot.

4) The periodic law of elements was discovered by Mendeleyev.

5) Many achievements of modern science and technology have been made by
prominent Russian scientists.

XII. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.

1) What country gave the world many outstanding scientists?

2) Who is called a pioneer of the world electrical engineering?

3) What are the discoveries of academician Lenz connected with?

4) What is Yablochkov known for?

5) Popov was a true Russian patriot, wasn't he? Prove it.

6) What is Dolivo- Dobrovolsky famous for?

7) Whose name is non-Euclidean geometry connected with?

8) What field of science did Mendeleev and Vernadsky make great contribution to?

9) What scientists worked in the sphere of space flights?

10) A great number of achievements of modern science and technology have been created and discovered by prominent Russian scientists, haven't they? Name some of them.

XIII. a). Пользуясь информацией текста, заполните следующую таблицу.

Inventor Invention Field of science

б). Используя данные таблицы, расскажите о наиболее значительных открытиях и достижениях русской науки.

XIV. Прочитайте и переведите текст, выполните задания, следующие за ним.

Pre-reading task

I. You are going to read about the maladies of the 21st century.

- What do you think are the main maladies?

- Why are they dangerous?

II. Read the text to see how close your predictions were.

We entered the 21st century with such maladies as heart and vascular system diseases, environmental diseases, cancer, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The risk factors causing these diseases are poor environment (especially after Chernobyl disaster), constant stress and bad habits. We witness more and more cases when people suffer from such environmental diseases as food allergies, chronic fatigue syndrome, asthma, thyroid gland. They all have a huge impact on the quality of life, darken our prospects for future. Alcohol, drugs, smoking, AIDS have also become the reality of our life, especially among young and middle-aged people. Today we will read the text about the diseases which have come as result of people’s ignorance and lack of healthy habits.

Smoking is very dangerous. Most young people smoke because their friends pressure them to do so. They may be copying their parents who smoke, or other adults they respect. At one time this would have been accepted as normal. But in the past 30 years attitudes about smoking have changed. Smoking is now banned in many places so that other people do not have to breathe in smokers’ shocking tobacco smoke.

Passive smoking, when you are breathing someone else’s smoke, can damage your health just like smoking can. Smoking becomes addictive very quickly, and it’s one of the hardest habits to break.

What is it in cigarette smoke that is harmful? A chemical called nicotine is a substance that causes addiction. It is a stimulant that increases the pulse rate and a rise in the blood pressure. Cigarette smoke also contains tar – a major factor for causing cancer.

Gases in cigarette smoke increase your blood pressure and pulse rate. This can contribute to heart disease. Smokers as twice as non-smokers are likely to have heart trouble.

If you have ever watched an adult try to give up smoking, you know how hard it can be. It is easier, healthier and cheaper never to start.

Another poison of many young people is alcohol. Remember, alcohol is a drug. It can make you sick, and you can become addicted to it. It is a very common form of drug abuse among teenagers. Do not let anyone at a party pressure you into drinking if you do not want to, especially if you are legally under age.

For years we have been told not to drive after we have drunk alcohol, which weakens our sense and clouds our judgеment. And yet people still do. Young people, who are drunk are less likely to wear their seat belts, and are less experienced when a problem occurs. The alcohol makes them think they are brilliant drivers and can take risks without getting hurt. But, more importantly, they become a risk to other drivers and pedestrians – potential killers.

Alcohol is a drug. In fact, it is a mild poison. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream, within four or 10 minutes of being drunk. Absorption is slower if there is food in the stomach. Once inside the body it passes through the bloodstream to the liver, where poisons are digested. But the liver can only process 28 grams of pure alcohol each hour.

This is a small amount – just over half a glass of beer. Anything else you drink is pumped round the body while it waits its turn to enter the liver.

When alcohol reaches your brain, you may immediately feel more relaxed and light-hearted. You may feel you can do crazy things. But after two or three drinks, your actions are clumsy and your speech is slurred. If you over-drink, you might suffer from double vision and loss of balance, even fall unconscious, hangover.

In facts, all medicines are drugs. You take drugs for your headache or your asthma. But you need to remember that not all drugs are medicines. Alcohol is a drug, and nicotine is a drug. There are many drugs that do you no good at all.

There is nothing wrong with medicinal drugs if they are used properly. The trouble is that some people use them wrongly and make themselves ill. Most of the drugs are illegal but some are ordinary medical substances that people use in the wrong way.

People take drugs because they think they make them feel better. Young people are often introduced to drug-taking by their friends.

Many users take drugs to escape from a life that may seem too hard to bear. Drugs may seem the only answer but they are no answer at all. They simply make the problem worse.

Depending on the type and strength of the drug all drug-abusers are in danger of developing side effects. Drugs can bring on confusion and frightening hallucinations and cause unbalanced emotions or more serious mental disorders.

First-time heroin users are sometimes violently sick. Cocaine, even in small amounts, can cause sudden death in some young people due to heartbeat irregularities. Children born to drug-addicted parents can be badly affected.

AIDS is sickness that attacks the body’s natural system against disease. AIDS itself does not kill, but because the body’s defence system is damaged, the patient has a reduced ability to fight off many other diseases including flu or common cold.

It has been reported that about 10 million people worldwide may have been infected by the virus that causes AIDS. It is estimated that about 350 thousand people have the disease and that another million (!) may get it within the next five years. Africa and South America are the continents where AIDS is most rampant although in the States alone about 50 000 people have already died of AIDS.

So far there is no cure for AIDS. We know that AIDS is caused by a virus which invades healthy cells including the white blood cells that are part of our defence system. The virus takes control of the healthy cells genetic material and forces the cell to make a copy of the virus. The cell then dies and the multiplied virus moves on to invade and kill other healthy cells.

The AIDS virus can be passed on sexually or by sharing needles used to inject drugs. It also can be passed in blood products or from a pregnant woman with AIDS to her baby.

Many stories about the spread of AIDS are false. One cannot get AIDS by working with someone who has got it or by going to the same school, or by touching objects belonging to or touched by an infected person. Nobody caring for an AIDS patient has developed AIDS and, since there is no cure for it at present, be as helpful and understanding as possible to those suffering from this terrible disease.

III. Look through the text and note down:

a) the reasons for smoking, drinking and taking drugs;

b) harmful consequences of these hard habits;

c) the most likely diseases caused by smoking;

d) the examples showing the effect of drugs on a human being;

e) the way the virus that causes AIDS can be passed on.

IV. Here are some answers about hard habits. Ask the questions.

a) Why _______? Because their friends pressure them to do so.

b) What _______? A chemical called nicotine causes addiction.

c) Why _______? Because they become a risk to other drivers and pedestrians.

d) When _______? Absorption is slower if there’s good in the stomach.

e) How _______? You may feel you can do crazy things.

f) Why _______? People take drugs because they think they make them been better.

g) How many _______? About 10 million people worldwide may have been injected by the virus that causes AIDS.

h) What ________? AIDS is a sickness that attacks the body’s natural system against disease.

Speaking

V. Discuss in the group. Express your attitude towards the habits you have learnt from the text and prove your arguments. Speak on the topic Young Generation and its Problems.

English as a world language

Pre-reading

I. Answer the questions using the list below.

1) Which language in the world is spoken by most people?

2) Which language has the largest vocabulary?

3) Which is the oldest written language?

4) Which sub-continent has the largest number of languages?

5) Which language has no irregular verbs?

6) Which language has the most letters in its alphabet?

7) In which language is the largest encyclopedia printed? Is it … Spanish – Cambodian – English – Egyptian – Esperanto – Mandarin – Chinese – Indian?

II. Work in pairs. Do you think the following statements are true or false?

1) English was already an important world language four hundred years ago.

2) It is mainly because of the United States that English has become a world language.

3) One person out of seven in the world speaks perfect English.

4) There are few inflections in modern English.

5) In English, many words can be used as nouns.

6) English has borrowed words from many other languages.

7) One-third of the world’s population speaks English.

8) German is a promising language in the world.

9) In the future, all other languages will probably die out.

Reading

III. Skim reading. Read the article on “English as a World Language”. Find out the answers to the true/false statements.

ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE

English is one of the major languages in the world. In Shakespeare’s time, though, only a few million people spoke English, and the language was not thought to be very important by the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world.

English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, in all the continents of the world. The exporting of English began in the seventeenth century, with the first settlements in North America.

Above all, it is the great growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that has given the English language its present standing in the world.

People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their native language in the US, Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly bilingual: in more than 70 countries, such as Ghana, Nigeria, India, Singapore and Vanuatu; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or educational. One person in seven of the world’s entire population belongs to one of these three groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in English.

Although estimates vary greatly, some 1




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